Taking as an example the viticulture in Byzantine Bithynia, this study is aimed at a wider diffusion of the knowledge known to date on Byzantine wine culture. It is a richly illustrated edition which, while primarily supporting the texts in the study, also aims at further visually spotlighting the Byzantine wine world. Investigation into the preparation of Bithynian wines in the study uses a combination of interdisciplinary tools and findings from cooperation between historians, ampelographers and oenologists. The climatic parameters of viticulture, varieties of vines and grapes, wine-making practices and types of wine are examined. The monograph is divided into chapters in which a working hypothesis on the sweet Bithynian wine is gradually built and investigated. In two particular chapters of the monograph it is argued that the production of Bithynian imperial wines and in general of the renowned sweet wines of Byzantium (Nikainos, Triglianos, Monemvasios, Aegean, Cretan and Cypriot wines) are related to ancient, but considered as Bithynian practices, i.e. the natural dehydration of the grapes on the vine or the drying in the sun to make raisins. In this study Byzantium emerges as a fascinating, hitherto unknown, historical wine period and its important contribution to the European wine culture is highlighted.