This volume contains the Proceedings of the Conference organized by the Centre for Byzantine Research/ NHRF in cooperation with the Society of Greek Jewry Study and held in (Athens, 24-25 November 1993). Twelve articles are included in the volume, which raise aspects of the Jewish presence in Greece during some fifteen centuries. During this period the Jewish element coexist with the Christians constantly adapting to new historical conditions. Despite the restrictive provisions of the emperors of the early and the middle Byzantine period, the members of the organized Jewish community is thriving and vibrant in the Greek cities. The Latin dominion over a substantial part of the Empire in the early 13th century and the restoration of Byzantine power until the Ottoman conquest constitute a breakthrough in the history of Greek Jews, who live in an environment of political instability and volatility. The new cities developed in the Greek area, alongside the already existing ones, attract many Jewish merchants. Their involvement is encouraged by the policy of Palaeologan dynasty. The Venetian policy towards Jews proved also similarly positive. Finally, the policy of tolerance of the Ottomans towards non-Muslim monotheistic religions contributed considerably to Greek Jewish communities’ further development.