The remains of ancient Greek art and architecture exercised enormous fascination and were passionately sought after by European Philhellenes, classical scholars and collectors, but also by fortune hunters and profit seekers. The so-called «marble fever» was a global frenzy sparked by the great intellectual trends, which at the same time affected the formation of European culture. The Greek Revolution was fueled by this international interest, possibly helped rekindle it, and certainly experienced it in all its intensity inasmuch as during its course the search for antiquities continued at the pace and in the ways imposed by the new conditions that had emerged. On the part of the Greeks, the care for the material remains of ancient Greek culture was, first of all, an ideological statement, directly related to the invocation of antiquity, which was the lever of Greek national self-consciousness and the driving force for the uprising against the Ottoman Empire. Then it was gradually transformed into a sector of the bureaucratic apparatus that began to be built during the years of the Greek Revolution in the context of the institutional formation of the Greek national state. The present volume provides an innovative examination of the interest in the material remains of ancient Greece during the nascence of the modern Greek state from both a historical and an archaeological point of view.